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英语写作中用词、连句、组段和谋篇方法

时间:2017-01-04 12:22来源:未知 作者:admin 点击:
一、引言 写作能力是语言表达能力的体现,是一种最富动感的显性能力。但是,当前大学生英语写作能力却十分薄弱。据统计,近年历届全国大学英语四、六级考试写作的平均分在6-
  •   一、引言
      写作能力是语言表达能力的体现,是一种最富动感的显性能力。但是,当前大学生英语写作能力却十分薄弱。据统计,近年历届全国大学英语四、六级考试写作的平均分在6-7分徘徊(满分15分),尚未及格。如何提高英语写作能力成为一个亟待解决和深入研究的课题。其实,近年来对这一问题的研究也着实不少,但多偏重对大学生写作中存在的问题进行分析,少数教育者也分析过如何提高大学生英语写作能力的方法和技巧,如加大目标语输入、欣赏+联想+运用模式、注意英汉文化差异、加强英语思维训练等等。但这些方法都没能涉及学生英语写作的根本。大学英语写作从根本上看是用词、连句、组段和谋篇四个方面的问题。所谓英语写作能力也就是用词、连句、组段和谋篇的能力。下面笔者将根据长期的大学英语教学实践对大学生英语写作中的词汇运用、句子连接、段落组合和篇章布局进行一次方法探究。
      二、词汇运用方法探究
      句子由名词或名词组加动词词组构成。词汇运用就是用词组句,是写作活动的重要内容,是学生写作学习的难点所在。词汇运用的方法有句型法、名词词组模块构建法。
      1、句型法。随着交际法、功能法、实践法等教学方法的推广运用,教学转向于综合交际及其他语言运用任务的训练,词汇学习有成为完成某次训练的辅助手段的趋势,句型学习作为词汇学习的重要手段和内容从观念上已基本摒弃。这对学生的词汇学习带来了一定的影响。它极易误导学习者把英汉词语意义机械地对等起来,从而忽视英语词汇的结构特征和语用特征。所谓“写作受汉语影响”就是由此产生的。
      句型法是词汇运用的重要手段。英语动词、形容词有明显的句型特征。如“be adj. to do”、“confront sb. with sth.”、“encounter sb.”、“convince sb. of sth./that +clause”等都是英语的句型。学习英语动词和形容词必须掌握其运用结构即句型。早在100多年前,现代语言学之父索绪尔就提出,语言最重要的特点在于它是一个自足的符号系统。进入这个系统的每一个词都与其他的词构成某种特定的关系。语言本身是一个符号系统,即词的系统。句型就是词与词的特定关系的体现形式之一。此外学习语言都必须以词为落脚点。构式语法认为动词的多义现象是基于其基本意义的特定构式的生成。这就要求词汇运用必须将动词词义与句型相结合,一方面要尽可能多地陈现相关句型,另一方面还要引导学习者领悟各种句型的形式变化。如,“confront sb. with sth.”可以变化为“be confronted with sth.”,“convince sb. of sth./that+clause”就可以变化为“be convinced of sth./that + clause”。在实际运用中,当学习者决定运用某一个动词或者形容词时,就必须符合它的句型结构要求。例如,“他相信这件事。”其中动词“相信”可用“convince”。这时就必须按照“be convinced ofsth.”句型组句。另外,无论哪一个层次的英语学习者句型练习都是必不可少的。
      2、名词词组模块构建法。名词词组模块构建是词汇运用的重要内容。John Sinclair首次将名词词组单列为一个语法项目,对名词词组的模块构建进行详细的论述和分析。构建名词词组模块,一方面要明确名词词组的语法特征。名词词组一般由“修饰语+中心名词+修饰语”构成。基于这一模型名词词组又可再分为“n.”、“n.+ n.”、“adj.+ n.”、“n.+ adj. phrase”、“n.+ adv.”、“n.+ prep. phrase”、“n.+ to do”、“n.+ doing”、“n.+done”、“n.+ of/in/to/against doing”、“n.+ clause”等。学习者必须明白,一个英语名词词组必须按照特定的结构组成;另一方面,要明确汉英语际间的词性转换。汉语中的动词和形容词有时必须转换成英语的名词形式。如,“教育孩子很重要”、“流利的英语是个竞争优势”两句中,“教育孩子”和“流利的英语”就应分别转换为“education of children”和“fluency in English”,将原句中动词和形容词转换成名词。
      三、句子连接方法探究
      句子连接就是指学习者运用一定的技巧将两个或多个英语句子有机组织起来表达思想,是学生写作中的薄弱环节。主要表现有句与句不连惯、不符合逻辑等。因此对学习者进行句子连接方法指导非常重要。
      1、并列法,即将两个或多个句子并列表达的方法。例如:“Iwill not let them—whoever they are—control my life. I will not letthem make me live in fear. I will not let them win.”
      2、对比法,即用两个句子进行对比表述的方法。例如:“The mother of the family cooks all of the dishes. The fatherand children serve the people who come to eat them.”
      3、因果法,即前一个句子说明原因,后一个句子叙述结果。例如:“Everyone is going to drive electrically-powered cars.So in a few years, people won’t worry about running out gas.”
      4、果因法,即前一个句子说明一个事实,后一个句子说明这一事实的原因。例如:“Many Americans enjoy Italian dishesmade with meats, tomatoes and cheese. They are very deliciousand tasty.”
      5、观点例证法,即前一个句子陈述一个观点,后一个或多个句子说明此观点的例证。例如:“According to a figure publishedrecently, the diet of the average Americans has changedconsiderably. Americans are now eating more chicken, fish andseafood, but less lamb and veal. Cheese has become a favoritefood with a consumption up 71 percent in the past decade.”
      6、一般具体法,即前一个句说明一种较为笼统的情况,后一个句子说明一个从属于笼统的具体情况。例如:“An organizationis working on the problem of hunger in developing countries.It sends farm animals to families and communities around theworld.”
      7、主题贯通法,即前一个句子提出一个主题,后一个或几个句子是对这一主题的不同角度的描写,两个或多个句子主要由同一主题贯通。例如:“One of the biggest problems facing usis energy saving. Even George W. Bush will talk about it in hisState of the Union. And self-denial has been misintroduced forcoping with it.”
      8、时空连接法,即按照事件的时空顺序描写事件。例如:“The earliest centers(学生聚集中心,大学的前身——本文作者注) in Europe were at Bolonia in Italy, found in 1088. Other earlycenters were set up in France, the Czech Republic, Austriaand Germany from 1150 to 1386. The first universities in Britainwere Oxford and Cambridge, established in 1185 and 1209respectively.”三个句子从时间上看是从前至后、从空间上看是从东到西。
      四、段落组织方法探究
      英语文章的段落结构简单而明白,无论文体皆为一事一段或者一个要点一段,而且结构基本相似。段落必须有一个主题,用一句话把它陈述出来,这个句子就叫作主题句(General Statement或者topic sentence)。为了说明主题句所涵盖的内容,作者必须讲明理由、证据或者细节(Specific Detail或者Supporting Evidence)。有时还需说明证据或者细节的原由或者现象等更具体的细节(More SpecificDetail)。这些都统称为“事实”。一个段落纵向看一般可分为两个或者三个层次,横向看又可分为一个或多个“事实”。这就是英语作文段落组织的基本方法。请看下面实例:1)①Heifer International(一个国际援助组织——本文作者注)also believes that families must pass on some of theirsuccess to others in need. ②This belief guarantees that eachperson who takes part in the program also becomes a giver. ③Every family that receives a Heifer animal must agree to givethat animal’s first female baby to other people in need. ④Families must also agree to pass on the skills and trainingthey receive from Heifer International. ⑤This concept helpscommunities become self-supporting.该段落共有五个句子。第一句很明显是主题句。第二句是一个具体事实,说明主题句所要求的具体内容。第三、四两句是进一步说明第二句的更具体事实。不难看出前四句已经构成了纵向的三个层次。第五句直接说明主题句的理由,可以理解为另一个具体事实,与第二句是并列关系,可以把它放在第二句之前,逻辑上也通顺的。此外各句之间也可以按照连句方法进行分析。2)①According to the figure just published by the UnitedStates Department of Agriculture, the diet of the averageAmericans has changed considerably in the past twenty years.②Americans are now eating more chicken, fish, and seafood,but less lamb and veal. ③Cheese has become a favoriteAmerican food with consumption up 71 percent in the past twodecades. ④Calorie-conscious Americans are consuming lesswhole milk and butter than ever before. ⑤On the other hand, theuse of sugar and other sweeteners has climbed sharply, largelybecause of a 175 percent increase in soft drink consumption. ⑥The figures also show that the average American eats eighteenpounds of ice cream a year.
      该段落共有七个句子。第一句是主题句。其余六个句子均为并列的具体事实,都直接说明主题句。此段纵向看只有两个层次,但横向看却有六个具体事实,甚至还可能更多。
      写作是一个过程。这个过程可以分为两个步骤:发散和集中,即由论题到论点、论据、再由论点、论据到结论。发散过程就是就论题的不同侧面提出相关的论点,并提供论据。方法有对比分析法和排列分析法两种。对比分析法就是从正反两个方面提出相反的观点进行对比分析的方法。排列分析法就是从正或者反的方面提出数个观点进行论证的方法。集中过程就是指对发散的论点进行归纳的过程。它要么是对正反两种观点之一的取舍(作者的观点),要么是一种倾向的确认。请看下面学生习作实例:
      3)On Studying AbroadStudying abroad has become a hot topic among peoplerecently. It is discussed whether studying abroad is suitablefor collegians in modern society. Opinions vary from person toperson.
      Some people believe that studying abroad has severaladvantages for collegians. The most important advantage is thatcollegians should learn much more knowledge from studyingabroad. Another one is that collegians can widen their sightso that they should increase their experience of life in strangesurrounding. In addition, studying abroad is easy to exercisecollegians independent ability.However, just as every coin has two sides, studying abroadalso has many disadvantages. Some people complain that thecost of studying abroad is too expensive, and collegians easilybecome degenerated as they have received allure from bigcountries. Besides, it’s hard for the Chinese to subsist abroadwith many foreigners always looking down on us.Unavoidably, we always have to face a lot of challenge anddifficulties in our growing process. So, as far as I am concerned,I insist that studying abroad be a good way to improve ourability despite the fact that it has disadvantages.本篇采用的是对比分析法。文章第二、三自然段对“StudyingAbroad”的利和弊进行了对比分析。这就是发散。在集中阶段,作者对其中之一进行了取舍。
      本题也可就支持或者反对“Studying Abroad”提出论题,也就是就其利或者弊一个方面进行分析。这时就用排列分析法。
      2、文章开头段落的陈述方法。文章开头段落不同于主体段落,有其特有结构,句子也可多可少,这取决于文章本身。如果较长,开头段落也可稍长。如果文章不长,只打算对某一问题稍加论述,如大学生作文,开头段落则只需二、三句话即可。具体方法主要有主题贯通法和一般具体法,其目标就是引出主题或者论题。请看下面例子:
      4)Nowadays, some famous university campuses arebecoming a new attraction for tourists. Opening of universitycampus has become a hot topic among people.
      5)One of the biggest problems in developing countries ishunger. An organization called Heifer International is working toimprove this situation. The organization sends farm animals tofamilies and communities around the world.
      例4)中,前一句说明的是一种现象,后一句说明的是围绕这一现象的一个具体问题。例5)中,三个句子是通过“hunger”这个主题及对这个主题的反映贯穿起来的:“hunger”→“improvethis situation”→“send farm animals”。落脚点是关于“sendfarm animals”。
      3、结尾段落的陈述方法。结尾在文章中往往起到画龙点睛的作用。多数情况下进行简短的总结归纳,明确指出赞成的观点和结论,有时也可以考虑提出预见和建议、做出简短评议、发出号召或指出解决方法等。请看下面例子:
      6)Since the beginning of the space race, the generalpublic has said, “Isn’t that great—when do I get to go?”Well, our chance might be closer than ever. Within the next 20years, space planes could be taking off for the Moon at thesame frequency as airplanes flying between New York and LosAngeles.
      此文的主题是“Space Tourism”。此段落作为文章结尾对这一主题的发展提出了预见。7)Unfortunately, few of us have much experience dealingwith the threat of terrorism, so it’s been difficult to get factsabout how we should respond. That is why Hallowell believes itwas okay for people to indulge some extreme worries last fall byasking doctors for Cipro and buying gas masks.
      此文讲述美国人对恐怖威胁所作的反映。此结尾段对这些反映作了简短的评论。
      还需说明的一点是,近年来,四、六级考试作文对写作中谋篇环节进行了一定的简化。作文试题总是提供了三个要点提示。考试者只须按照提示分别组成三段即可。
      六、结语
      用词、连句、组段和谋篇是英语写作过程中最基本的四个环节或者层面。这几个环节或者层面都有特定的形式和方法。掌握并正确运用这些形式和方法对提高写作能力,直至最终获得驾驭和运用英语的终身能力具有重要意义。英语写作活动是一个知识运用、技巧运用、一定思维模式的、跨文化的系统。词汇运用、句子连接、段落组合和篇章布局不是简单孤立的写作技巧,更是知识运用、思维模式构建、文化连通的重要环节。

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