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高考英语阅读理解词句意义推断四招

时间:2016-09-29 12:35来源:未知 作者:admin 点击:
高考英语阅读理解题十分注重考查考生结合语境推断词句意义的能力,本文结合2005年高考英语阅读理解题谈谈其常见解题技巧。 一、理清人称演变过程,巧妙推断代词意义 高考英语阅
  •   高考英语阅读理解题十分注重考查考生结合语境推断词句意义的能力,本文结合2005年高考英语阅读理解题谈谈其常见解题技巧。
      一、理清人称演变过程,巧妙推断代词意义
      高考英语阅读理解代词意义推断题主要考查考生结合语境推断人称代词和指示代词意义的能力。几乎每一个人称代词都可能成为题眼,it可指动物、无生命事物、特定事件或人,they可指复数人、动物、物品、事件,一直是考得最多的代词。指示代词意义推断题主要以this, these, that, those为题眼,考查考生对特定事件的再认能力。代词意义推断题主要出现在人称转换频繁、动作变换较多的语境中,要求考生认真阅读特定代词所在句及前后邻近句,分析人称转换和动作变换的详细过程,弄清其来龙去脉,以准确理解特定代词替代对象。
      例1:原文:Supermarkets are trying out new computers that make shopping carts more intelligent(具备智能的). They will help shoppers find paper cups or toilet soap, and keep a record of the bill.(NMET2005 浙江)
      53.The underlined work“they” (paragraph 1) refers to ________.A. supermarkets B. shop assistants C. shopping carts D. shop managers析:C 本题考查复数代词they 的意义推断,因原文出现Supermarkets, new computers, shoppingcarts 等多个复数名词,如果不仔细分析人称演变过程是很容易出错的。认真阅读分析该词所在句及前一句可知,前句主要介绍各超级市场正在试用使购物车更具智能的新电脑,因此下文应重点介绍这些购买物车具有哪些智能,显然They应指代购物车。
      例2:原文:Whatever you do or however you choose to deal with it, at certain times a wonderful,reasonable and helpful child will turn into a terrible animal.I’ve seen friends deal with it in all kinds of different ways. (NMET2005 安徽)
      72. The underlined word“it” in the second paragraph refers to ______.
      A. the change from good to bad that’s seen in a child
      B. die way that parents often blame themselves
      C. the opinion that a child has of his parents
      D. the advice that parents want their children to follow
      析:A 认真阅读该词所在句及前一句内容可知,该词与前一句中的it 意义相同,应指代at certaintimes a wonderful, reasonable and helpful child will turn into a terrible animal,由此不难推出答案。
      例3:原文:Many creative thinkers state that they have completely devoted themselves to the subject matter of the problem, often over finds long periods of time. Indeed, it should be strange if they had not done this.(NMET2005 天津)
      54.What does the underlined word “this” refer to?
      A. Great contributions to the society.
      B. Long-time study of the subject matter.
      C. Various statements about problem solving.
      D. Complete devotion to artistic creation.
      析:B 认真阅读该词所在句及前一句内容可知,该词应指代often over finds log periods of time to make a study of the subject matter of the problem,由此不难推出答案。
      二、结合自身含义分析语境逻辑,巧妙推断熟词新含义
      不少熟词/词组在特定语境中均有新含义,同学们应利用这一新含义既来源于原含义又体现新语境的特点,将原含义与语境结合起来考虑,以准确推断其新含义。
      例1:原文:However obvious these facts may appear at first glance, they are actually not so obvious as they seem except when we take special pains to think about the subject(. NMET2005北京)
      71. In Paragraph 3“, take special pains” probably means“_____”.A. try very hard B. take our timeC. are very unhappy D. feel especially painful析:A 认真阅读分析该词所在句可知,这些事实其实并不那么明显,只有努力思考才能使其明显,因此该词应解释为try very hard,而take pains 本意为吃苦,验证了本题结论的正确性。例2:原文:Waves are one of nature’s ways of picking up energy and then sending it off on ajourney. (NMET2005 广东)
      65. Theunderlined phrase“picking up” (paragraph 2) is closest inmeaning to _______.A. starting again B. speeding up C. gathering D. improving析:C 认真阅读分析该词所在句可知,and then sending it off on a journey暗示该词表示收集,这也符合pick up 表示“拾起来”的本意。
      三、分析语境逻辑,巧妙推断生词含义
      生词词义推断题是高考英语阅读理解必考试题,解题时应利用定义解释、对比关系、转折关系、让步关系、因果关系、条件关系、递进关系或并列关系的语境逻辑,从而巧妙推断生词含义。
      例1:原文:The plant is often pruned so that it remains only 60 to 90 centimetres high. Pruning isimportant because it encourages the growth of tender shoots, or young leaves. (NMET2005 江西)
      68.In the first paragraph ,the word“pruning” means .
      A.regular cutting of the plants B.frequentwatering
      C.regular use of chemicals D.growing the plants high in the mountain
      析:A 认真阅读分析该词所在句及前句内容可知,该词含义与前句pruned含义相同,由前句so thatit remains only 60 to 90 centimetres high可知,该词表示定期修剪(茶树)。
      例2:原文:WilliamShakespeare said, “The web of our life is of a mingled yarn (纱线), good and illtogether.”(NMET2005 江苏)
      74.Theunderlined word “mingled” in the last paragraphmost probablymeans________.
      A. simple B. mixed C. sad D. happy
      析:B 认真阅读分析该词所在句可知,good and ill together 是对该词的解释,因此该词应指褒贬共存,即混合的。
      四、分析作者态度,巧妙推断难句含义
      高考英语阅读理解题常出现句意推断题,所考句子或句式复杂或意义含蓄或内含典故,常难以正常理解,此时应认真阅读原文尤其邻近内容,准确理解作者观点,尤其是对特定人、物、事件的褒贬观点,从而成功推断难句含义。
      例1:原文:Lewis found that in families with three or four children, dinner conversation is likely to center on the oldest child, who has themost to talk about, and the youngest, who needs the most attention.“Middle children are invisible,” says Lewis“. When you see someone get up from the table and walk around during dinner, chances are it’s the middle child.” (NMET2005全国卷I、II)
      68.By saying “Middle children are invisible” in paragraph 3, Lewis means that middle children_________.
      A.have to help their parents to serve dinner
      B.get the least attention fromthe family
      C.are often kept away from the dinner table
      D.find it hard to keep up with other children
      析:B 认真阅读分析该句前后句可知,前句可用来推断答案,后句可用来验证答案。所在句前一句表明,Lewis发现有3-4个小孩的家庭其就餐话题有可能围绕最大小孩(总有最多的话谈)和最小小孩(需要最多的关心)进行,可见中间的小孩在就餐期间讲话最少,因此获得的关心也最少,所在句后一句(中间小孩离开饭桌,在饭桌四周玩耍)是对该答案的验证。
      例2:原文:However, Radcliffe has not ruled out(排除) in the future chasing her “final” worldrecord time and questioned sayings thatmarathon runners have the ability in their career to produce onlyfour or five world-class times.
      “I don’t think that— although I can’t put a number on it,” said Radcliffe“. That changes fromperson to person.” (NMET2005 湖南)
      65. By saying “I can’t put a number on it,” Radcliffemeans she’s not sure _____ .
      A. if she has the ability to set a new world record
      B. if she can win another race though she has won many times
      C. how many times a marathon runner can set the world record
      D. if she has the ability to produce four or five world-class times
      析:C 认真阅读分析该句及前一句内容可知,Radcliffe怀疑马拉松运动员只有创造4-5次世界一流成绩的能力这一说法,可见其即使不知道马拉松运动员能创造多少次世界纪录也不会持有这一观点。

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